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Three Major Perspectives in Sociology

Three Major Perspectives in Sociology.

Three Major Perspectives in Sociology

Sosiologi Info - Understanding sociology is simply a scientific study of society and its various elements that exist in individuals, social groups, and social organizations.

There are three perspectives in understanding social reality, namely conflict perspective, functionalism, and interactionism.

Overview of Sociology

Before the emergence of sociology, society was never a major concern, especially in social studies.

In simple terms, Sociology is a scientific study of society and its various elements that exist in individuals, social groups, and social organizations.

The emergence of sociology in the 19th century was introduced by the Father of Sociology, namely Auguste Comte. 

He was an expert after the French, at that time gave notices about the state of French society after the French Revolution.

Indeed, the term community has long been introduced by Ibn Khaldun, since the emergence of the first studies on social science. 

Ibn Khaldun is known for the phenomenon of Muqaddimah. It is also known as Islamic Sociology which has been known since the 14th century.

Some people say Ibn Khaldun was a Tunisian Islamic scientist from North Africa, and was called the First Sociologist, and was named the Father of Sociology. 

Apart from all that, we are both aware that at this time it is very important to involve sociology in various aspects of social life.

Many things have changed in the current scenario. Sociology has become very important because of its influence on individuals and society.

This is a key study for the current situation, because society is made up of complex structural parts. Thus, the study of sociology is needed in every aspect of people's lives.

As is known, Sociology was attended by several founding figures, namely Auguste Comte, Karl Marx, Max Weber, Emile Durkheim, Herbert Spencer and other important figures.

The social studies carried out by the above figures, which we currently have the basis and framework for conducting research with existing methods.

Keep in mind again, Sociology is the scientific study of humans (individuals) and society. Sociology also plays an important role in solving international problems. 

The division of world politics usually creates conflicts and pressures between nations. That is what happened at the beginning of the emergence of social science which is now better known to us as Sociology.

Therefore, Sociology tries to understand the causes of tension and initiate peace between nations. Sociology is the basis of community planning before implementing any social policy.

Knowledge of sociology will help in the process of understanding the relationship between economics, politics, religion, culture, and others that exist between individuals and society.

For example, we can understand the corona virus pandemic that is happening around the world and how it is affecting social relations, industry and world bureaucratic organizations as Max Weber called the “Iron Cage”.

The holistic approach adopted by Sociology can help us understand the general social problems of the world in relation to one another, such as the relationship of COVID-19 to religion, politics, economics, law, and so on.

Three Sociological Perspectives in Understanding Social Reality

There are three sociological perspectives in explaining and solving problems of social phenomena in social reality, namely conflict perspectives, functionalism, and interactionism.

First, the conflict perspective was initiated by Karl Marx who stated that social conflict, especially class conflict and competition, characterizes all societies.

We can understand that during the corona virus pandemic situation, it is the ruling class who benefits from this corona virus pandemic. 

In today's globalized world, the ruling class has sucked up a lot of profit in the name of humanity. 

For example, the sale of medical equipment (PPE, masks, hand sanitizers) with price variations.

The market law of capitalism in a free market has made a few people have so much "capital". Meanwhile, some people find it difficult to find and get very little capital. 

With sociology we can understand and solve these phenomena and problems, because we already understand using existing approaches.

Capitalists are constantly looking for ways to exploit, get more capital and more value in the midst of the coronavirus pandemic. 

This is why Karl Max said in his book Das Kapital "capital is dead labour, which, like a vampire, lives only by sucking in living labor, and lives more, the more labor it sucks in."

Second, the functionalist perspective where the idea was pioneered by Auguste Comte, Emile Durkheim, and other figures. 

Emphasis on social structure and social systems, interconnections and equilibrium.

It is explained that if one part of the social system is affected, then it will affect other social systems so that it hinders the smooth process of forming the social structure.

We have seen how the world came together to agree on quarantine and isolation to stop the spread of the corona virus so far.

In a social world without functionalism, the world will be busy because all must unite to make change.

Third, the interactionism perspective initiated by Max Weber emphasizes interaction in the social world as the main catalyst for change that drives social interaction.

In the end, we have seen the world at large how this corona virus pandemic has reduced social interaction between humans.

We have also seen how the ethics of some religious leaders make their followers do not believe in the existence of the corona virus.

Because in Max Weber's book "Protestant Ethics and the Spirit of Capitalism" is to make us understand how religious ethics paved the way for the rise of capitalism.

Sociology in Social Construction

In conclusion, Sociology is a very important field of study that has given rise to several theories and other perspectives from some of its founders that shape society.

How and why we believe in what is seen from certain things. Sociology can be represented in our daily life through existing social constructions.

Due to a greater understanding of human life that continues to develop, as well as the increasing number of research provided.

And its implications Sociology will continue to be a rapidly developing field of study. In essence Sociology is very important in understanding our social world today.

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